Tuesday, May 6, 2014

INTEGRATING INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY INTO THE LEARNING PROCESS

I. INTRODUCTION
A. Background
Today, we live in the information age. In the information age, information and communication technology sophistication has enabled the rapid exchange of information without limits of space and time (Dryden & Voss, 1999). Unlike the era of agrarian and industrial, progress of a nation in the information age is highly depend on the ability of its people to harness the knowledge to improve productivity. The characteristics of a society is known as knowledge - based society. Who controls the knowledge that he will be able to compete in the global era.
Therefore, each country race to integrate Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to all aspects of life for the nation to build and cultivate a knowledge-based society in order to compete in the global era. What are the consequences? Countries that have been developed and able to integrate these technologies systemically and holistic developed advanced exponentially. Some examples that have been developed include Singapore, Japan and Korea. Meanwhile, other developing countries are not yet able to integrate these technologies in a comprehensive manner is getting exponentially far behind. This is called the digital divide.
        Realized by the government (in this case the Ministry of Religious Affairs) that the efforts to improve the quality of religion and religious education is still not optimal. Eventhough in terms of legal protection is adequate with the Government Regulation (PP) No. 55 of 2007. The essence of problem is the low quality faculty both in terms of qualifications and competence.
Reviewed of aspects of their qualifications, according to data on the Education Management Information System (EMIS) Directorate General of Islamic Education Ministry of Religious Affairs, in 2011, teachers were educated scholar at Elementary School (MI) amounted to 1.058.470 (81.40%), junior high school (MTs) are 185.149 (77.24%) and Senior high school (MA) 479.603 (80.18%) (http://emispendis.kemenag.go.id/ [16 Oktober 2012]). The relative percentage increase from the last years, just have not seen the scholarly expertise of relevance between the field and the subject which are taught. From this aspect should be assumed not optimal efforts to improve the quality of the teacher competence.
One of the results of research about teachers' competence of Islamic schools prove that religious teachers have professional competence in less good category. The education concept is very low, the mastery of learning process and evaluation of student learning is low (Rahmat, 2012). Similarly, the level of competency test Islamic school teacher certification in West Java Province which is organized by the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Keguruan UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung in 2012, the results are less than adequate. The average of Quran Hadis teacher competence is 60,04, Aqidah Akhlak is 59,76, Fiqh 54,82, and SKI is 53,47.5 Even in 2012, nationally  the value of the average teacher's competence is 43.8 from maximum 100. Those who acquire it reaches is below 49% of the total number of participants.
The reality of the teacher competencies will affect to the educational objective of the Islamic school. This is important because the competence of teachers play a major role for the achievement of educational goals. It stated in the Education National Standards (SNP) that "Educators must have academic qualifications and competencies as agents of learning, physical and spiritual health, as well as having the ability to achieve national education goals". For Islamic education subject (PAI), teachers who faithful, morality, professional, productive, and competent is a figure that can determine the success of achieving the objectives of PAI. Competence of teachers needs to be improved, both pedagogic competence, personal competence, social competence, and competence profesional. Even for teachers of Islamic education by Religious Affairs Minister Regulation No. 16 of 2010 is needed leadership competences.
The Minister of National Education has set the regulation of National Education Minister of the Republic of Indonesia Number 16 of 2007 on the Standards of Academic Qualifications and Competency. In the attachment rule, the four core competencies that have been standardized. Subject teachers of Islamic Education in SD/MI, SMP/MTs, and SMA/MA, SMK/MAK competence in particular is interpreting the material, structure, concept and mindset sciences relevant to the study of Islamic Education. And then, to analyze the material, structure, concept and mindset sciences relevant to learning Islamic education.
Pedagogical competence consists of 10 sub-competencies aspects. Among the ten aspects, only the lack of competency standards further explanations are the 5th aspect is to the competence of teachers in the utilization of information and communication technology for the purpose of the development of educational activities. Competence is simply described by the phrase "take advantage of information and communication technology to improve the quality of educational development activities", without any further description (the regulation of The Minister of National Education number 16 of 2007 on the Academic Qualification Standards and Competencies Teachers). Even in it only one core competency of teachers who did not get a more detailed description of each level.
For example, pedagogic core competencies in the mastery of learner characteristics of the physical, moral, social, cultural, emotional, and intellectual. There are four competencies of teachers for kindergarten teachers, elementary classroom teacher/MI as well as subject teachers in SD/MI, SMP/MTs , SMA/MA and SMK/MAK.
Indonesia needs to reduce immediately the digital gap by integrating ICT systemically to all sectors of government such as trade/business, public administration, defense and security, including health and education. In the scientific writing, the author would like to explore the problem of integrating ICT in education. But, the authors limit the discussion only on a more micro issues, namely the integration of ICT within the scope of learning process (classroom). Meanwhile, the definition of information technology and communications technologies here include print and non-print (such as the audio technology, audio-visual, multimedia, internet and web-based learning).

B. Problem Statement
Based on the description above, the writer formulates a problem statement as follow:
1. What is the integration of ICT into the learning process?
2. What is the urgency of integrating ICT into the learning process?
3. How to integrate ICT into the learning process?

C. Objective of The Research

This main objective of this writing is to find out are:
1.  The meaning of the integration of ICT into the learning process.
2.  The urgency of integrating ICT in the learning process.
3.  The way to integrate ICT into the learning process.

D. Significance of The Research

The result of the research is expected to be a useful information for widyaiswara, English teacher and government about the urgency of the integration of ICT into the learning process.

II. DISCUSSION
A. Definition of Integrating ICT into the Learning Process
Compare the following two sentences, "Learning to Use ICTsvs.Using ICTs to Learn". Simply, to integrate ICT into the learning process is using ICT for learning as opposed to learning to use ICT. Learning to use ICT implies that ICT is used as an object of study or subjects.
Actually, UNESCO classifies the use of ICT in the learning stage into four stages as follows:


1.  Emerging Stage


Institutions at the initial stages of ICT development demonstrate the emerging approach. Such institutions have just started their journey in the ICT field with a skeleton computing infrastructure either donated or purchased by the institution authority. To start with, administrators and teachers just begin to explore the possibilities and consequences of using ICT for institutional management and adding ICT to the curriculum. Institutions at this emerging phase are still firmly grounded in traditional, teacher-centred practice. The curriculum reflects an increase in learning how to acquire ICT basic skills such as office automation, e-mail and basic operation of computers, so that it prepares the ground for moving to the applying stage. In the emerging approach to ICT development, the focus is on the technical functions and uses of ICT and on the need for some knowledge and representation of the impacts of ICT on the system as a whole.
This approach often involves teachers’ personal use of ICT, such as, the use of word processing to prepare documents and spreadsheet to prepare a database, locating information on CD-ROMs or on the Internet, or communicating with friends and family by e-mail. Here, teachers are developing their ICT literacy and learning how to apply ICT to a range of personal and professional tasks. The emphasis is on training in a range of tools and applications, and increasing teachers’ awareness of the opportunities for applying ICT to their teaching in the future.
2.  Applying Stage
In this second stage ICT tools are integrated into various school subjects. Administrators and teachers use ICT for tasks already carried out in institutional management and in the curriculum. Teachers largely dominate the learning environment. Institutions at the applying stage adapt the curriculum in order to increase the use of ICT in various school subjects with specific tools and software such as drawing, designing, modeling and application of specific tools. This curriculum assists the institutions to move to the next stage.
In the applying stage, teachers use ICT for professional purposes, focusing on improving their subject teaching in order to enrich how they teach with a range of ICT applications. This stage often involves teachers in integrating ICT to acquire specific subject skills and knowledge, help teachers to change their teaching methodology in the classroom, and use ICT to support their professional development.
Teachers gain confidence in a number of ICT tools that can be applied to the teaching of their subject area. The opportunity to apply ICT in all their teaching is often limited only by a lack of ready access to ICT facilities and resources.
3.  Infusing Stage
At the third stage, the infusing approach involves integrating or embedding ICT across the curriculum, and is seen in those institutions that now employ a range of computer-based technologies in laboratories, classrooms, and administrative offices. Teachers explore new ways which changes their personal productivity and professional practice. The curriculum begins to merge subject areas to reflect real-world applications. In this infusing stage, ICT infuses all aspects of teachers’ professional lives to improve student learning and the management of learning processes. The approach supports active and creative teachers who are able to stimulate and manage the learning of students, integrating a range of ICT tools in achieving their goals. The infusing stage often involves teachers easily integrating different knowledge and skills from other subjects into project-based curricula.
In this approach, teachers fully integrate ICT in all aspects of their professional lives to improve their own learning, as well as, the learning of their students. Thus, they use ICT to manage not only the learning of their students but also their own learning. They use ICT to assist all students to assess their own learning in achieving specific personal projects. In this  approach, it becomes quite natural to collaborate with other teachers in solving common problems and in sharing their teaching experiences with others.
4.  Transforming Stage
In this stage, ICT becomes an integral, though invisible, part of daily personal productivity and professional practice. The focus of the curriculum is now learner-centred that integrates subject areas in real-world applications. ICT is taught as a separate subject at the professional level and is incorporated into all areas. Institutions have become centres of learning for their communities.
In the transforming approach to ICT development, teachers and other staff members regard ICT as a natural part of the everyday life of the institutions that they begin to look at the process of teaching and learning in new ways. The emphasis changes from teacher-centred to learner centred. Teachers, together with their students, expect a continuously changing teaching methodology designed to meet individual learning objectives.
The reality shows that practice learning in developing countries, including Indonesia, ICT is still used as objects or subjects. Mostly, ICT is used as an object of study or subjects in schools. Fryer (2001) says that the use of ICT in learning process aims to train the skills to use ICT in a way to integrate it into the learning activity. ICT is not taught as a separate subject. So, it is time for ICT is integrated into the learning process and not merely as separate subjects.

B. The Urgency of Integrating ICT into the Learning Process
            Indonesia must prepare human resources to be ready to enter the era of knowledge-based society (knowledge-based society). In 2020, Indonesia will go in the era of free trade (Asean Free Trade Area) At that time, Indonesian people must have a qualified ICT literacy and the ability to use it to increase productivity (knowledge-based society). Integration of ICT into the learning process can improve the ICT literacy, build community characteristics based knowledge (knowledge-based society) on self-learners, in addition to increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of the learning process itself.
The duty of education stakeholders especially policy makers is formulate the importance of ICT in education and the need for a clear statement about its utilization in the learning process so that really gives a role in the achievement of educational goals. In learning process, ICT should be able to develop intelligence thinking, charity, in faith and piety. If the concept is not clearly defined utilization, it seems to lead the complexity in implementing policy-making and implementation of development standards.
UNESCO (2002) states that the integration of ICT into the learning process has three main objectives: 1) Building knowledge-based society habits, such as problem-solving skills, communication skills, the ability to search, analysis / manage information and converting it into new knowledge and communicating it to other people; 2) Developing skills in using ICT (ICT literacy); and 3) Improving the effectiveness and efficiency of the learning process.
UNESCO (2004) outlines the following as broad reasons for growth in use of ICT within education systems:
1.      Development of knowledge-society attributes in students, including higher order thinking skills, lifelong learning habits, and the ability to think critically, communicate, and collaborate, as well as to access, evaluate, and synthesize information.
2.      Development of ICT skills and competencies in students, as preparation for operating in an ICT-rich workplace and society.
3.      Resolution of structural problems and deficits in education systems. This can include using ICT to enhance administrative and teaching efficiency, alleviate under-resourcing in specific areas (for example, a lack of textbooks or learning support materials), address equity issues through enabling equality of access to knowledge, resources and expertise, or support teachers who may be under-equipped to deal with new teaching challenges.
According to Jonassen (1996) which is quoted by Norton, et.al (2002) stated that theoretically, ICT plays a important role to support the learning process, such as:
1.      Active; allow learners to be involved actively by the process of interesting and meaningful learning
2.      Constructive; enable learners to combine new ideas into the knowledge that has been previously owned or desire to understand the meaning of knowledge and doubts that have existed in his mind.
3.      Collaborative; enable learners within a group or community work together, share ideas, suggestions or experience, advising and providing input to fellow group members.
4.      Intentional; enable learners to strive actively and enthusiastically to achieve the desired goal.
5.      Conversational; allows the learning process is an inherent social and dialogical process whereby learners take advantage of the communication process both inside and outside of school.
6.      Contextualized; directed learning situations allow meaningful learning process (real-world) through a "problem-based or case-based learning"
7.      Reflective; enable learners to realize what they have learned and reflect on what they had learned as part of the learning process itself.
In other words, ICT enabled learning can be delivered to a variety of learning modalities (Multisensory), either audio, visual, and kinesthetic (DePorter et al, 2000). ICT enabled learning delivered in an interactive and simulative that enable learners to learn actively. ICT also allows to train high-level thinking skills (such as problem solving, decision making, etc.) and indirectly increase the "ICT literacy" (Fryer, 2001).
A futurologist, Eric Ashby (1972) as quoted by Miarso (2004) stated that the development of sophisticated ICT today increasingly has brought education revolution fourth. The first revolution occurred when people submit their child's education to an educator. The second revolution occurred when the paper used for learning purposes. The third revolution was in line with the invention of the printing press so that the learning materials can be presented through print media. The fourth revolution occurs when the use of electronic devices such as radios, televisions and computers for internet distribution and expansion of education.

C. Integrating ICT into the Learning Process
Ideally, ICT should be integrated into the learning process of all subject. For example, one form of the integration of ICT into the learning process is shown in by a lesson plan (lesson plan) ever created by some high school educators as follows :
Sample 1:
Sample Lesson Plans that Integrate ICT in English Subject

No
Topics
Grade
Level
Objectives
Instructional Activities and ICT Used
1
The Creation of Universe
1st
Students will be able:
·      To describe the theories of universe creation
·      To compare theories of universe creation among each other
·      Students watch video shows (VCD) of the universe creation
·      Given a book of universe creation, students (in group) analyze the differences among theories of universe creation
·      Each group write their report using word processor application (e.g. MS Word).
·      Each group present and discuss their works in front of class.
2
Square Equation
2st
·      To determine the root of square equation using factor and abc’ formula (rules)
·      To use discriminant to solve the square equation problems
·      Student studying the equation of square from CD-ROM
·      Teacher discussing them and explain how to use the rule of square equation more deeply using MS Powerpoint
·      Students solving problems given by teacher
·      As a follow up, students assign to solve the problems related to the square equation and write the equation using equation facilities on MS Word
·      Students submit their homework via e-mail to the teacher
3
Narrative Monolog Discourse : “Aspect of Love”
3st
·      To write a monologue discourses related to the theme of “Aspect of Love” in the form of poetry.
·      Students choose a project related to the theme of “Love” from http://www.iearn.org
·      Students studying the project description and procedures the choosen
·      Students write their own poetry related to the theme of “Love” according to the project procedure suggested using MS Word or MS Power Point.
·      Students send their poetry to the teacher and their friends in the world through mailing list (group) on http://www.iearn.org to have some comments or feedback.

Or can be seen from the second sample as follows:

Sample 2

The sample of Developing the English Language Learning Utilizing Computer

Nama Sekolah                        : SMP/MTs ................
Mata Pelajaran                        : Bahasa Inggris
Konteks/Tema/Teks/Unit        : Teks Descriptive
Waktu                                      : 2 x 40 menit

Kompetensi Inti (KI) 3:
Memahami makna teks tulis fungsional dan esei pendek sederhana berbentuk descriptive dan recount yang berkaitan dengan lingkungan sekitar
Kompetensi Inti (KI) 4:
Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks tulis fungsional dan esei pendek sederhana berbentuk descriptive, dan recount untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungan sekitar

No
Kegiatan Belajar yang Mendorong Siswa Memanfaatkan Komputer dalam Belajar
Program
1
2
3
4
1
Siswa mengamati gambar tentang seseorang dengan fokus pada karakteristik fisik.



2
Siswa secara berpasangan menjodohkan informasi (noun phrase) yang sesuai dengan gambar.




3
Siswa membaca teks yang mendeskripsikan gambar.



4
Siswa berdiskusi secara berpasangan untuk menjawab pertanyaan (tentang informasi tersurat maupun tersirat).



5
Siswa mencari informasi tentang kata sifat lain yg berhubungan dengan ciri fisik seseorang melalui internet atau keterangan guru.

6
Siswa secara berkelompok mengidentifikasi ciri fisik seseorang yang mereka kenal/gambar seseorang.



7
Siswa menulis teks descriptive berdasarkan hasil diskusi kelompok secara individu menggunakan komputer dengan software word. Penggunaan bahasa di komputer diatur supaya komputer menggunakan Bahasa Inggris. Dengan demikian siswa bisa mengecek spelling dan grammar yang mereka gunakan. Garis hijau yang muncul untuk kalimat yang tidak gramatikal dan garis merah untuk ejaan yang salah harus diusahakan dihilangkan.



8
Siswa memberi ilustrasi pada teks dengan menggunakan komputer / mengambil gambar dari internet.



9
Siswa membaca dan mengoreksi hasil karya teman (bertukar hasil karya secara berpasangan).



10
Siswa memajangkan hasil karya yang telah diperbaiki dan dicetak dan melakukan kunjung karya.





Keterangan: 1. Word; 2. Excel; 3. Powerpoint; 4. Internet
The samples of lesson plan above shows clearly that through the integration of ICT into the learning process, in addition to the learning objectives achieved there is a hidden agenda that can be achieved is also important, namely ICTs Literacy such learners can browse the information through the Internet, to communicate by e-mail, create a report with a word processing application (Microsoft Word), or present something with Microsoft PowerPoint. This is what is meant by integrating ICT into the learning process.
            In advance level, quoted from E-learning methodologies; A guide for Designing and Developing E-Learning Courses stated that integrating ICT into the learning process can be delivered in various method and formats which can be seen from the following table.

The Methods
Teaching Method
Used to
Delivery Formats
Expositive methods
Presentations,
case studies,
worked examples,
demonstrations
Facilitate knowledge
acquisition (mainly conceptual
and factual knowledge),
orientation, motivation,
attitudinal change
Simple learning resources (documents and PPT presentations)
Interactive e-learning lesson
Webcasting (video
lessons and podcasts)
Webinars (video conference, audio conference, chat-based)
Virtual classroom
Application methods
Demonstration practice
method
Develop procedural skills
Combination of animation
and operational simulation
Virtual classroom (using
application sharing)
Job aids
Provide just-in-time
information and guidance
Printed documents such as checklists, technical glossaries, templates, manuals
Online help and expert systems
Case-based exercises
Develop job-specific
cognitive skills
Interactive e-learning lesson
Electronic simulation based on branched scenarios
Individual tutored activity
Online group activity
Role plays
Develop interpersonal skills Stimulate attitudinal change
Interactive e-learning lesson
Electronic simulation based on branched scenarios
Online group activity
Simulations and serious games
Develop deep understanding
of complex system
Symbolic simulations
Learning games
Guided research
Active knowledge construction
Discussion forum, e-mail, chat, audio and video conference
Wiki, blog, shared documents
Project work
Active knowledge construction
Discussion forum, e-mail, chat,
audio and video conference
Wiki, blog, shared documents
Collaborative methods
Online guided discussion
Stimulate critical thinking
and reflection
Facilitate communications
among learners
Develop interpersonal skills
Stimulate attitudinal change

Discussion forum, e-mail, chat, audio and video conference
Collaborative work
Stimulate critical thinking
and reflection
Develop problem solving skills
Develop interpersonal skills
Stimulate attitudinal change
Discussion forum, e-mail, wiki, blog, chat, audio and video conference, shared documents

Peer tutoring
Stimulate critical thinking
and reflection
Develop interpersonal skills
Stimulate attitudinal change
Discussion forum, e-mail, wiki, blog, chat, audio and video conference, shared documents
Meanwhile based on Designing Web-Based Training; How to Teach Anyone Anything Anywhere Anytime which is written by William Horton (2000) that there is correlation between the integration between ICT in the learning process and learning mode which can be seen from the table below:

No
Learning Mode
ICT Support
1
Listen
Presentations, video / audio conferencing
2
Read
Browsing the Internet, book online, digital library.
3
Notice
Presentations, watching movies.
4
Giving Suggestions
Mailing list, e-mail, chat, video/audio conferencing, online mentoring.
5
Scrutinize
Online discussions
6
Accept Criticism
Online discussions, video / audio conferencing, mailing lists, online mentoring
7
Model
Simulation, online games, role playing activities online
8
Exploration
Virtual experiments, simulations
9
Discuss ideas
Mailing list, video / audio conferencing, chat, discussion online
10
Practice
Virtual experiments, test online, learning games, editing
11
Research
Tutorial online, digital libraries

From the tables above can be seen that teacher have to had high skill in ICT field. Sometimes, some teachers assume that their ability to make presentations using Microsoft Powerpoint is an indicator that they are capable in ICT field. They assume that using presentation in learning means that they had integrate ICT in the learning process. Whereas, many ICT skills that must be possessed by teachers in integrating ICT  in the learning process. In addition, teachers' creativity in optimizing learning through the use of ICT becomes an absolute in the achievement of learning objectives.
 
III. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
A. Conclusion
       From the discussion above, can be formulated some important points as conclusion as follows:
1.   Integrating ICT into the learning process is using ICT for learning as opposed to learning to use ICT. Learning to use ICT implies that ICT is used as an object of study or subjects. Using ICT in learning process aims to train the skills to use ICT in a way to integrate it into the learning activity. ICT is not taught as a separate subject. So, it is time for ICT is integrated into the learning process and not merely as separate subjects.
2.   Integration of ICT into the learning process has important role which has three main objectives, namely: 1) Building knowledge-based society habits, such as problem-solving skills, communication skills, the ability to search, analysis / manage information and converting it into new knowledge and communicating it to other people; 2) Developing skills in using ICT (ICT literacy); and 3) Improving the effectiveness and efficiency of the learning process.
3.      In integrating ICT into the learning process need the willingness of all stakeholder. Many ICT skills that must be possessed by teachers in integrating ICT  in the learning process. In addition, teachers' creativity in optimizing learning through the use of ICT becomes an absolute in the achievement of learning objectives.

B. Suggestion
Based on the discussion above, there are some suggestions can be given to improve many aspects especially in integrating ICT into the learning process, such as:
1.       Widyaiswara; is hoped always to improve their competence and skill especially in integrating ICT into the learning process by update their knowledge such as developing the reading learning by using any method that is proved can be improving the learning result.
2.   Policy support; school has policies to promote the integration of ICT into the learning process. For example, through the declaration of the vision, mission, regulations and masterplan of school strategic plan forward .
3.   E - Leadership ; The school leader and teachers in the school realized the full importance of the role of ICT in learning and strive to continue to learn and apply it in school.
4.  Preparation of human resource; school develop teachers’ ICT literacy and competency in integrating ICT into learning process including a variety of strategies, methods of effective learning. Schools must also prepare technical personnel in the field of ICT for learning process.
5.   Preparation facilities ; prepare the school facilities conducive for the occurrence of various source -based learning by preparing some of the facilities such as the library (print and nonprint), the computer connected to the LAN, Internet connection, VCD/DVD player plus television and composition classroom .
6.    Provision learning software; provision of learning software such as books , modules, worksheets, audiocassette program, VCD / DVD, interactive CD-ROMs, and others can be done by purchasing a product that has existed in the market or produce their own.
7.    Preparation of technical personnel; ICT facilities in schools should be supported by some of the technical personnel who have the expertise or skills to manage and maintain both the equipment

BIBLIOGRAPHY


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